PTU - Polskie Towarzystwo Urologiczne
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Renal cell carcinoma risk factors
Article published in Urologia Polska 2005/58/3.


Ivan Kawaciuk, Lubomír Hyršl, Pavel Dušek, Ladislav Jarolím, Marek Schmidt, Veronika Kaliská, Matúš Chocholatý, Markéta Urbanová
Department of Urology, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Faculty Hospital in Motol, Prague, Czech Republic
Head of the Department: Assoc. prof. Ivan Kawaciuk, MD, Ph.D.


renal cell carcinoma, pathogenesis, risk factors, smoking, obesity, hypertension


The aim of the study.
Evaluation of risk factors incidence, especially smoking, obesity and hypertension, in our group of long-term observed patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in comparison to group of hypothetic population frequency-matched on age and sex.
Materials and methods.
Patients' group consisted of 316 consecutive patients operated for RCC between 1982 and 1998 at our institution. Hypothetic population group was created from the data of Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic. As heavy smokers were identified people smoking over 20 or more cigarettes per day and as obese people with body mass index (BMI) ł 35 kg/m2. Incidence of risk factors was analysed in both groups by log-rank test.
In comparison to selected population there was significantly higher incidence of heavy smokers (20.6 vs. 5,9%; p <0.01) and obese people (12.7 vs. 4.3%; p <0.01) in the patients' group. There was no significant difference (36.1 vs. 33.3 %; p = 0.22) in the occurrence of hypertension. Other risk factors were noticed rarely. Six patients (1.9%) had alcohol abuse problems, four (1.3%) had radiotherapy of retroperitoneum for other malignancies in their history, four (1.3 %) had polycystic kidney disease and three (0.9%) had end-stage renal disease. Seven percent had a malignant duplicity which was diagnosed prior to RCC and 15.8% (50/316) had malignant tumor in their family history.
Results of our retrospective study confirmed previously published data about significantly increased risk of renal cell carcinoma in relation to tobacco smoking and elevated BMI.


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Ivan Kawaciuk
Department of Urology, Charles University in Prague
2nd Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital in Motol
V Uvalu 84,
150 06 Praha 5, Czech Republic
Phone +420-22443 4800; Fax 22443 4820